Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples face grief through the range of losses which confront all people, but added to this are historical losses of country, language, family, culture and traditions.
Multiple Historical Losses For Aboriginal People
Following British settlement in Australia, Aboriginal populations were decimated initially by introduced diseases. but also by conflict with white settlers who had no understanding of Aboriginal use of, and connection, with their traditional lands. Subsequent disruptions came about through the Stolen Generations.
The removal of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children from their families, based on the European view that they would have better opportunities to thrive, has been one of the most difficult and scandalous public policy approaches to First Nations People.1
The impact of this policy on those Aboriginal children, their families of origin and subsequent generations was the subject of an Australian Royal Commission in 1998 entitles “Bringing Them Home“2.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people’s grief is also amplified by the inequalities which currently persist in our society: economic, health issues, employment, education, and a statistically shorter lifespan than non-Indigenous Australians.
Although changes have occurred to reduce these inequalities, they still exist, and are critical in a nation finding its way to achieve Reconciliation.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people still die at a younger age than the rest of the Australian population, and have a higher rate of suicide than the population in general. The burden of grief for some Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities can become overwhelming.
Aboriginal And Torres Strait Islander “Sorry Business”
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples are culturally oriented to their immediate and extended family and the wider communities or county and language to which they belong. It is most often here, that they are supported in their grief.
Grief resulting from the death of a family member is known as “Sorry Business” among Aboriginal people.
Aboriginal cultural protocols following death generally have two purposes:
- sending the spirit on to the next world
- grieving as a family and community
Many Aboriginal language and clan groups share the belief that this life is only part of a longer journey. When a person passes away, the spirit leaves the body. The spirit must be sent along its journey back to the ancestors and the land: otherwise it will stay and disturb the family.
Although there are variations to these customs, there are two significant practices that may occur following the death that assists with the journey of the spirit:
- the name of the deceased is not mentioned for a long period of time, from several months to years; this is to ensure that the spirit is not held back or recalled to this world
- a cleansing or smoking ceremony is conducted; the cleansing or smoking of the deceased person’s belongings and residence also assists with encouraging the departure of the spirit
Coping Strategies For Aboriginal And Torres Strait Islander peoples
It has been found helpful for the health and well-being of Aboriginal peoples to:
- acknowledge the impact of the losses and unresolved grief
- support the continuation of men’s and women’s business/ceremonies
- support the continuation of rites of passage for young people
Challenges For non-Indigenous Australians
In working with any person who has lost a loved one as the result of death it is important to recognise differences in emotional and behavioural responses– not everyone is the same. While there are patterns of emotional responses and behaviour in bereavement which are part of people’s cultural background, there are also differences and variations because every individual is unique. The task is to understand each person’s own individual responses. The requires openness and listening.
Challenges for non-Indigenous Australians working with bereaved Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples include:
- being culturally responsive and appropriate in their engagement and mannerisms when working with Aboriginal people
- challenging their own unintentional biases or unpacking white privilege
- looking through an Aboriginal lens with no assumptions that they or their life has been the same as a non-Indigenous person
It is important for non-Aboriginal people to be aware of local Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander customs and culture, which may vary according to the land and people to whom a person belongs.
As is the case in most grief support, understanding grows through story-telling and “yarning”, finding out about the person and building trust and rapport, where they have come from and what they have experienced. Grief support is based on respect for the person.
When working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people who are grieving, it is important to be aware of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander support services and workers with whom Aboriginal people might find it easier to identify.
Working Towards A Better Future
All Australians, both Indigenous and non-Indigenous can work towards a future which better supports the grief of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders by:
- developing an understanding and respect for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples cultural traditions and family/spiritual connections to their country and kin
- developing loss and grief counselling courses about Indigenous grief for both Indigenous and non-Indigenous people
- having healing centres dealing with Indigenous health issues from a holistic perspective
- developing loss and grief programs and workshops, as a part of the curriculum, within our primary and secondary schools
- assisting towards a true reconciliation, with the full understanding that both groups, non-Indigenous and Indigenous people, have deep grief
- throughout all levels of the health and medical profession, teaching students about grief, and particularly the complexities of Indigenous grief
- working alongside and with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Communities and organisations. There are, in most communities, strong links to Elders, who will often be able to find the best connections to support a person or family in grief within their own Community
- continuing to change Australian history books to truly reflect the events of the past
To understand what’s happening today, you must first understand the past
1Australian Human Rights Commission. [n.d.] Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders: Australia’s First Peoples https://www.humanrights.gov.au/education/students/hot-topics/aboriginal-and-torres-strait-islanders-australia-s-first-peoples
2 Australian Human Rights Commission 1997. Bringing Them Home. Report of the National Inquiry into the Separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children from Their Families https://www.humanrights.gov.au/publications/bringing-them-home-preliminary